Function of Aging is Apparently Reversible?

“Declining NAD+ Induces a Pseudohypoxic State Disrupting Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Aging”

From the article: “Ever since eukaryotes subsumed the bacterial ancestor of mitochondria, the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have had to closely coordinate their activities, as each encode different subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging, but its causes are debated. We show that, during aging, there is a specific loss of mitochondrial, but not nuclear, encoded OXPHOS subunits. We trace the cause to an alternate PGC-1?/?-independent pathway of nuclear-mitochondrial communication that is induced by a decline in nuclear NAD+ and the accumulation of HIF-1? under normoxic conditions, with parallels to Warburg reprogramming. Deleting SIRT1 accelerates this process, whereas raising NAD+ levels in old mice restores mitochondrial function to that of a young mouse in a SIRT1-dependent manner. Thus, a pseudohypoxic state that disrupts PGC-1?/?-independent nuclear-mitochondrial communication contributes to the decline in mitochondrial function with age, a process that is apparently reversible.”


  • A specific decline in mitochondrially encoded genes occurs during aging in muscle
  • Nuclear NAD+ levels regulate mitochondrial homeostasis independently of PGC-1?/?
  • Declining NAD+ during aging causes pseudohypoxia, which disrupts OXPHOS function
  • Raising nuclear NAD+ in old mice reverses pseudohypoxia and metabolic dysfunction

David Sinclair of the University of New South Wales

Bitcoin is like dial up internet. Something better will win.

Bitcoin is like dial up internet. Something better will win. People will look back and instead of saying “Remember when we used the internet through telephone lines” they’ll say “Remember when we they ran that currency experiment called bitcoin?”

Bitcoin does have some advantages to traditional currencies but it has some critical flaws that make it an easy target to get replaced.

Bitcoin facilitates transactions with rapid speed, and cost effectiveness but there’s a lot of disadvantages that an alternative currency could fix.

There’s several ways to improve on this currency including:

  1. The currencies’ method of creation (mining and the verification process isn’t optimal)
  2. Creating transparency — this will be required to comply with laws
  3. Protection against defaults by the wallet administrator
  4. Regulation and reporting
  5. Ease of funding

In summary, I think crypto currencies are here to stay. I don’t think bitcoin will be the market leader in 5 years.

Leon Apel Kiva

I’m interested in helping organizations that provide measurable, and accountable assistance to those who need it.

Leon Apel Kiva

Ideally, I want to help entrepreneurs with time or capital who do the following:

  1. Create technological solutions to problems
  2. Employ others
  3. Perform important scientific research
  4. Deploy alternative energy solutions
  5. Deploy biotechnology solutions
  6. Deploy solutions to protect and sustain environments

There’s many other important issues and some issues may be more important/pressing but I think the issues I mentioned are important ones that come to mind.

Bitcoin: The $14B Primative Crypto Currency

Bitcoin: The $14B Primative Crypto Currency

There will be better alternatives that people will use instead of bitcoin.

Bitcoin does have unique advantages including its widespread usage, and including ability to send funds across borders inexpensively.

However,  its limitations (eg. unclear regulatory frameworks, unsafe wallets, and slowness in funding) make it very susceptible to better alternatives.

I do think cryptocurrency is here to stay and I think this innovation will be adopted with more credible financial and regulatory backing.

Once the currency falls below $800 there will be panic selling because $600 is the next support level.